1) Generation of Ba/Ca and δ18Osw data, based on the planktic foraminifera, G. ruber (white and pink varieties, separately) from Orca Basin, to determine the timing and duration of Laurentide Ice Sheet melting episodes, and to assess changes in GOM SSS due to changes in meltwater input volume.
2) Reconstruction of high-resolution Mg/Ca-SST records based on G. ruber (white and pink) for the last 25 ka to assess whether changes in GOM SST coincide with abrupt climate events such as the Mystery Interval (17.5-14.5 ka), the Bolling-Allerod (14.7-13.0 ka) and the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka).
3) Analysis of redox sensitive trace metals in bulk sediment samples to determine the sediment oxygenation state of Orca Basin during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), deglaciation, and early Holocene (24-7 ka), and the origin of sedimentary redox condition changes.
Publications (peer reveiwed unless stated otherwise)
Williams, C. Brown, E.A., Lowell, T.V., Shiller, A.M., Hastings, D.W., Shevenell, A.E., and Flower, B.P. (in prep), A multi-proxy approach to reconstructing deglacial salinity and Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater sources
Williams, C., Kuffner, I.B., Richey, J.N., and Poore, R.Z. (in prep), Preservation of Limacina inflata (Pteropoda) shells in bi-weekly sediment trap samples: Controls on aragonite dissolution in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Wickert, A.D., Mitrovica, J.X., Williams, C., and Anderson, R.S. Mississippi drainage records the gradual demise of a thin Southern Laurentide Ice Sheet, Nature (in revision)
Williams, C., Flower, B.P. and Hastings, D.W. (2012), Seasonal Laurentide Ice Sheet melting during the "Mystery Interva" (17.5-14.5 ka), Geology, v. 40, p. 955-958, doi: 10.1130/G33279.1 --- Download Paper (PDF) --- Download Supplemental Material (PDF)
Flower, B.P., Williams, C., Hill, H. and Hastings, D.W., (2011) Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater and the Atlantic
Williams, C., Flower, B.P., Hastings, D.W., Guilderson, T.P., Quinn, K.A. and Goddard, E.A. (2010), Deglacial abrupt climate change in the Atlantic Warm Pool: A Gulf of Mexico perspective, Paleoceanography, 25, PA4221, doi:10.1029/2010PA001928 --- Download Paper (PDF) --- Download Auxiliary Material (PDF)
Williams, C. (2009) Meltwater and Abrupt Climate Change During the Last Deglaciation: A
Selected Presentations (1st author)
Williams, C., Brown, E.A., Hastings, D.W., Lowell, T.V., Shiller, A.M., Shevenell, A.E., and Flower, B.P. (2012), Deglacial abrupt climate change and Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater input to the Gulf of Mexico: Implications for the Atlantic Warm Pool and beyond, America Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Poster Presentation.
Williams, C., Flower, B.P, Hastings, D.W., Brown, EA., Lowell, T.V., Shevenell, A.E. (2012), Deglacial meltwater input to the Gulf of Mexico: A marine-based record of Laurentide Ice Sheet chronology, Geological Society of America Fall Meeting, *Invited Talk.
Williams, C., Flower, B.P., Hastings, D.W., Brown, E.A., and Lowell, T.V. (2011), A Multi-Proxy Approach to Understanding Deglacial Gulf of Mexico Climate and Laurentide Ice Sheet Chronology, America Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Poster Presentation.
Williams, C., Flower, B.P. Hastings, D.W., Guilderson, T.P., Goddard, E.A., Shiller, A.M. (2010), Meltwater
Williams, C., Flower, B.P., Hastings, D.W., Shiller, A.M., Goddard, E.A. and Lea, D. (2010), A Multi-Proxy Approach to Deglacial Paleo-Salinity Reconstructions based on Gulf of Mexico Sediments, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Poster presentation.
Williams, C. and Flower, B.P. (2009), Laurentide Ice Sheet Meltwater and Seasonality Changes
Williams, C., Guilderson, T.P., and Flower, B.P. (2009), Radiocarbon variability during the Laschamp Excursion based on Gulf of Mexico sediments, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Poster presentation.
Williams, C., Flower, B.P., Hastings, D.W. and Randle, N. (2008), Meltwater and Abrupt Climate
Williams, C. and Flower, B.P. (2008), Meltwater and Climate Variability in the Gulf of Mexico during the Last Glacial Termination, USF College of Marine Science Graduate Student Symposium. Oral Presentation.
Research Cruise Experience
Coral Calcification Project, FL Reef Tract & Dry Tortugas, 14 days, November/December 2011, Dr. Ilsa Kuffner, US Geological Survey, project focuses on marine calcification rates of corals and algae for four sites along the Florida Reef Track and Dry Tortugas. Corals and algae tiles were collected and photographed using SCUBA, and weighed at each site.
R/V Knorr, 22 days, February/March 2010, Dr. David Hollander, USF College of Marine Science and Dr. Paul Baker, Duke University, exploration of the Amazon delta for appropriate sediments to use in climate reconstructions of the Amazon region. Multiple long cores (150-ft), gravity cores, box cores and multi-cores were taken in addition to CTD casts, water filtration transects for particulates, and seismic surveys.
Photo: The USF and NIOZ Science Crew of the 2010 Amazon Cruise on the R/V Knorr: Kara Radabaugh, Enrique Montes, David Hollander, Claudia Zell, Carlie Williams and Julie Richey
R/V Oceanus, 6 days, June 2008, Dr. Daniel McCorkle, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, collected live benthic foraminifera using box cores for deep-sea culturing studies that focused on shell chemistry changes due temperature and seawater carbonate ion variability.
R/V Nancy Foster, 4 days, October 2003, Dr. Paul Gayes, Coastal Carolina University, collected data along South Carolina Grand Strand shelf, in search for sand for beach renourishments. Bottom grabs and side scan sonar were used for data collection. After data collection, sediment samples were sieved and analyzed on the basis of composition and grain size.
Volunteer & Outreach
Chief Scientist & Scientific Diver, Tarpon Springs FL Chapter, SCUBAnauts International (Time commitment: 20-40 hours/month) (12/2011-present)
Education Officer & Scientific Diver, Tarpon Springs FL Chapter, SCUBAnauts International (Time commitment: 15-30 hours/month) (8/2010-12/2011).
Photos: Left: A SCUBAnaut completes benthic surveys at Glover's Reef Research Station (June 2012), Belize; Right: Tarpon Springs SCUBAnauts dive with Pierre Cousteau (May 2012)
Guest Lecturer/Scientist for the Duke Talent Identification Program (TIP) “Marine Research in the Gulf of Mexico” Course, New College, Sarasota, FL.
Science mentor/Advisor for a high school student’s 3-week independent senior project (Time commitment: 40 hours/week for 3 weeks)