Research: Carbonate Platforms and Reefs; Coastlines and Continental Shelves; Geologic History of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean; Geology of Continental Margins; High Resolution Seismic Reflection Profiling; Phosphate Deposits; Sea Level Changes of the Geologic Past; and Seafloor Mapping and Imaging.
Dr. Hine is fundamentally a broadly-trained geological oceanographer who has addressed sedimentary geology/stratigraphy problems from the estuarine system out to the base of slope—primarily in carbonate or mixed siliciclastic/carbonate environments. He, his associates and graduate students have defined the response of coastal and shelf depositional systems to sea-level fluctuations, climate changes, western boundary currents, antecedent topography, and sediment supply. Specifically this includes geologic origin and evolution of submerged paleo-shorelines, reefs (relict and active), shelf sand bodies, open marine marsh systems, barrier islands, and back-barrier environments. Hine's primary research tools are high-resolution seismic reflection profilers, side-scan sonars, swath bathymetric systems, geoacoustic seafloor-classification systems, and ROV's. Additionally, they have used a variety of submersibles including the DSRV Alvin and Clelia.
Dr. Hine has participated in >75 research cruises including the JOIDES Resolution (Co-chief scientist—Leg 182, and sedimentologist—Leg 194). Dr. Hine won the Francis P. Shepard Medal for excellence in marine geology in 2009.
Research: Paleoceanography/Paleoclimatology; Trace and minor elements in biogenic calcite and marine sediments; Stable isotopes in carbonate and siliceous marine microfossils; Lipid biomarkers; Sedimentology
Dr. Shevenell's research focuses on generating high-resolution geochemical records from marine sediments to address questions related to Earth's Cenozoic climate evolution. Her current research interests are geographically diverse (including the Southern Ocean and North Pacific Ocean) and divided into three focus areas: 1) Cenozoic Antarctic ice sheet development from far-field and ice proximal records, 2) the role of the high-latitude oceans in Glacial-Interglacial carbon cycling, and 3) Antarctic Holocene climate variability. Paleoclimate/paleoceanographic research undertaken by the Shevenell Lab is relevant to IPCC concerns that ongoing climate changes are accelerating polar ice cap melting and global sea level rise. Shevenell and her students develop, calibrate, and employ a wide variety of inorganic and organic geochemical and micropaleontologic techniques to reconstruct past changes in ocean temperature, circulation, productivity, continental ice volume, and carbon cycling on decadal to orbital timescales. This multi-proxy approach enables Shevenell, her students, and their collaborators to address the broadest range of climate and biogeochemical problems.
Dr. Shevenell is actively involved in several international research programs, including the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and Antarctic Geologic Drilling (ANDRILL). Dr. Shevenell maintains an active sea-going research program and encourages student participation. Field research opportunities in the Shevenell Lab range in scale, but all include the retrieval of marine sediments from continental margins and/or ocean basins using oceanographic research vessels, ice breakers, drill ships, or ice-shelf drilling platforms.
aleoceanography, Geochemistry of Marine Sediments, Marine Stratigraphy
Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1993
2012 University of South Florida Outstanding Graduate
Faculty Mentor Award, Honorable Mention
We are saddened to announce that Benjamin Flower passed away on Sunday July 1, 2012.
Dean Jackie Dixon writes "I am saddened to let you know that Ben Flower passed away this morning at 8:50 am at Bayfront Hospital. He went peacefully surrounded by his family, friends, and colleagues. He has been blanketed in love these last few days."
A memorial fund has been setup in honor of Ben Flower. If you would like to give to this fund please visit the following link, click on the checkbox beside "260027001 Benjamin Flower Memorial Fund".
His research focused on the role of ocean circulation in past global climate change. Ben was particularly interested in sedimentary records of Earth's changing environment and biota, on time frames ranging from the early Cenozoic to the present. He used ocean sediment cores (including Ocean Drilling Program cores, IMAGES piston cores, and short box cores and multicores) to examine major changes in the evolution of the ocean/climate system. One of the most valuable tools for elucidating past climate change from sediment cores is the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotopes in foraminifera by mass spectrometry. Mg/Ca paleothermometry is a relatively new technique he used to isolate the temperature component of the oxygen isotopic composition of foraminifera and calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater, which is controlled by ice volume and salinity. We are also developing Ba/Ca in forams as a proxy for paleosalinity of the Mississippi River system. This multi-proxy approach allows investigation into the phasing of climatic and hydrologic changes, and into what causes regional to global climate change, including the role of Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater.
A second major project will re-assess Gerard Bond's finding that ice-rafting in the North Atlantic was closely tied to solar irradiance forcing during the Holocene (cited >700 times based on ISI Web of Science). With a new Postdoctoral Associate funded by NSF and the Comer Science and Education Foundation, I will (a) verify that the counting techniques can be replicated, (b) examine other cores to investigate the regional coherence of ice-rafting history, (c) conduct robust statistical comparison to improved 14C and 10Be records of solar activity, and thereby (d) increase understanding of the climatic linkages between solar activity and ice-rafting.
A new project will assess the impact of the BP oil spill on sediments and benthic communities on the West Florida Shelf and Slope. We will sample sediments from 100-2400 m near DeSoto Canyon using a new Ocean Instruments Multicore system (funded by NSF RAPID program). Analysis will include radioisotope dating, organic and inorganic geochemistry, and isotopic and faunal analyses of benthic foraminifera, in order to (a) document the presence/absence of oil and dispersants, (b) quantify the uptake of hydrocarbons in the food chain, and (c) assess any impacts on the benthic communities.
Ph.D., Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 1982
Office Phone: 727.553.1249
CV: View PDF
Zonal Jets and Eddies - Planetary Science and Satellite Oceanography at the Crossroads
Research: Atmospheric; Oceanic and Planetary Turbulence; Theory, Modeling, Experiments
Circulations in atmospheric, oceanic and planetary systems feature turbulence and different kinds of waves. The character of turbulence – wave interaction changes from scale to scale and, due to strong nonlinearity, processes on different scales affect each other in many different ways. On the largest scales, a flow may become strongly anisotropic and self-organize into a system of alternating bands as observed on all giant planets. Similar but much weaker bands exist in the world ocean. We have discovered a new flow regime underlying this phenomenon; today it is known as zonostrophic turbulence. The existence of this regime on Jupiter has been confirmed by the data collected by a spacecraft Cassini.
My group is continuing this research using theoretical, numerical and experimental techniques. In addition, we develop novel analytical tools to describe turbulence – wave interactions and develop models that can be used in codes describing oceanic and atmospheric circulations on different scales. One of such tools is the Quasi-Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE) model that has been implemented in the state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction system WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). This research is also ongoing.
Ph.D. University of Miami, 2005
Office Phone: 727-553-3354
CV: View PDF
Rosenheim Group Website
Brad E. Rosenheim on Twitter
Southern Ocean Science Website
Research: Paleoceanography/Paleoclimate, stable isotopes, carbon cycling
Research in Brad Rosenheim's group aims to constrain changes in climate and carbon cycling in the recent geologic past, from the anthropocene to the last glacial maximum. Researchers working with Dr. Rosenheim employ isotopic techniques including conventional stable isotope measurements (H, C, N, O), non-conventional stable isotope measurements ("clumped" isotopes in CO2 derived from carbonate minerals), and radioisotopic techniques including uranium system dating and radiocarbon analysis. Dr. Rosenheim's group obtains geologic and oceanographic data from sediment, coral and sclerosponge skeletons, ice, and the open ocean water column. The group casts a broad approach to specific questions regarding climate and carbon cycling, resulting in success of obtaining research support from an equivalently broad section of NSF programs and other funding agencies that fund Earth Sciences.
For up-to-date laboratory activities and a list of recent publications and news, please visit the Rosenheim lab web page.
Research: Physiological response of marine animals to extreme environments, ocean acidification, deoxygenation and warming, polar and deep-sea biology, biology of mollusks
My research employs a unique suite of field and laboratory techniques and approaches to assess the ecological consequences of climate change, including ocean acidification, deoxygenation and warming, and the role of animal energetics in ecosystem dynamics. I carry out broad comparative physiology studies to determine the limits to evolution and ecology. Physiological mechanism provides a foundation upon which ecosystem responses to climate change and consequences for biogeochemical cycles can be understood. My studies compare organisms across size, depth, latitudinal and phylogenetic lines, from microzooplankton to macronekton, ctenophores to fishes, from the poles to the equator and from the abyssal plains to the ocean surface. We strive to integrate across levels of organization, from mitochondria to ecosystems. I focus on the physiology of individual species and what this can teach us about their origin, behavior, ecology, diversity and the ecosystems in which they live.
Ph.D. University of British Columbia, 2006
Office Phone: 727.553.3373
CV: View PDF
Fisheries and Ecosystems Ecology Lab Website
Dr. Cameron Ainsworth on Google Scholar
Research: Fisheries Biology; Ecosystem and Resource Management
Dr. Ainsworth's research is focused on understanding how human activities and climate influence the structure and functioning of marine communities and developing new tools and methodologies to support ecosystem-based management. As part of this research, Dr. Ainsworth and his students employ a variety of statistical and numerical simulation models to characterize trophic linkages in marine ecosystems, habitat use by fish and invertebrates, and the influence of physical oceanography on the distribution of marine life. His ongoing studies include a management strategy evaluation (MSE) of Gulf of Mexico marine protected area design. The MSE approach is a type of closed-loop policy analysis that simulates each part of Holling's adaptive management cycle (stock assessment, implementation of harvest rules, and policy evaluation). Key to this approach is recognizing feedbacks from the ecosystem that occur in response to management actions and evaluating tradeoffs with respect to socioeconomic and ecological policy objectives. This work is being done in collaboration with NOAA as part of their Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for the Gulf of Mexico, and other Gulf-area agencies. Another major project ongoing in the Ainsworth lab is the evaluation of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This study focuses on the short and long-term impacts of oil toxicity in the ecosystem, as well as the impacts of mediation actions like the use of dispersants and fishery closures.
In 2013, Dr. Ainsworth received a Sloan Research Fellowship, awarded to stimulate fundamental research by early-career scientists and scholars of outstanding promise. These two-year fellowships are awarded yearly to 126 researchers in recognition of distinguished performance and a unique potential to make substantial contributions to their field. Dr. Ainsworth is one of only two Sloan Fellowships awarded in the state of Florida.
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 2007
Office Phone: 727.553.3371
CV: View PDF
Fish Ecology Laboratory Website
Fish Ecology Laboratory on Facebook
Research: Ecology; Marine conservation and management efforts
Research in Dr. Stallings' lab focuses on basic concepts in ecology, yet includes a strong applied component to inform marine conservation and management efforts. Overarching efforts seek to estimate the abundance of marine organisms and examine the ecological processes that drive population and community dynamics. His lab's questions are often framed to evaluate the effects of human activities, such as fishing and coastal development, on ecological systems. Therefore, much of the research is field-intensive and involves both experimental and large-scale observational approaches. However, the lab also incorporates an extensive laboratory component through mesocosm experiments and use of stable isotope analysis. Moreover, the Stallings Lab explores large datasets, using multivariate statistics and GIS to reveal broad-scale ecological patterns that may be further explored through focused regional field studies.
Ph.D., University of Miami, Physics Dept., 1997
Office Phone: 727.553.3987
CV: View PDF
Optical Oceanography Laboratory Website
Dr. Chuanmin Hu on Google Scholar
Research: Ocean Optics and Optical Remote Sensing
Nearly all marine life depends on light. Dr. Hu's research is focused on addressing coastal ocean problems using primarily optics. These problems include river-ocean interactions (transport and transform of particulate and dissolved matters), carbon cycling, algal blooms, coral reef environmental health and ecosystem connectivity, climate change and anthropogenic influence on coastal/estuarine water quality. As light exists both below and above the surface of the ocean, Dr. Hu and his group members at the Optical Oceanography Lab approach these problems through 1) characterizing the underwater light field using the state-of-the-art optical equipment; 2) developing satellite remote sensing algorithms and data products specifically targeted to these problems; and 3) integrating these products with other data to understand coastal ocean changes in bio-optical properties as well as their causes and consequences.
The current research at OOL emphasizes the use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to better understand the 3-dimensional light field and algal bloom formation, and high-resolution satellite remote sensing from which customized data products are derived for estuaries, turbid coastal waters, and optically shallow waters (e.g., coral reefs, seagrass). The recent establishment of a virtual antenna system (VAS) and a virtual buoy system (VBS) greatly facilitates data and information sharing on coastal blooms and general water quality with a variety of user groups.
Joseph (Donny) Smoak
Christina A. Kellogg
Joseph (Donny) Smoak
Research: Marine Magnetics; Mid-Ocean Ridge and Hotspot Interactions; Plate Tectonics; Seafloor Mapping with High-Resolution Multibeam Sonars of Artificial and Real Coral Reefs, Mines, Paleoshorelines, Hydrothermal Vents, and Fish Habitats; and Wax Analog Modeling of Seafloor Spreading Processes
Deep Ocean: Mid-ocean microplate tectonics, small and large offset propagating rifts, and hydrothermal venting and other mid-ocean ridge processes.
Shallow Ocean: High-resolution multibeam studies of: 1) benthic habitats of coral reefs and fish; 2) paleoshorelines & sea level rise; 3) scour & burial of mines, artificial reefs, & pipelines; 3) shallow water hydrothermal venting, and 4) paleoshorelines.
Over the past six years, these research interests have been addressed with oceanographic seafloor mapping expeditions to the Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Analyses of multibeam, magnetics, gravity, side-scan sonar are made in conjunction with insight from a seafloor spreading analog wax model. Current projects include: Plate tectonic reconstruction of the Pacific-Nazca plates, Off-axis volcanism along the Easter Seamount Chain, Deep submersible investigations of exposed oceanic crust, Benthic habitat studies of Pulley Ridge, Florida Middle Ground, and Panama City Beach. Students involved in these projects partake in data collection, data analysis and publishing results (e.g., four of the five publications listed below are first-authored by the student involved with the project).
Dr. Naar is currently serving as the Graduate Program Director for the college.
Ph.D. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), ZÜrich, 1989
Office Phone: 727.553.1019
CV: View PDF
Dr. David Hollander on Google Scholar
Research: Archeometry; Chemical Sedimentology; Isotopic Biogeochemistry and Organic Geochemistry; Origin of Organic-Rich Deposits; and Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions
My research program focuses on evaluating the influence that anthropogenic and natural climate and environmental change have on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and other biolimiting elements in both modern and ancient lacustrine and marine settings.
This research couples state-of-the-art analytical techniques in stable isotope and organic geochemistry to provide a detailed characterization of organic matter. The goals of his research are to understand how biological, Chemical and physical processes in modern environments control the production, composition, alteration, decomposition and preservation of organic matter. The results of his studies in modern settings are applied to the analysis of ancient organic-rich sediments in order to reconstruct the environmental and climatic factors controlling the accumulation of organic matter throughout the geologic record.
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 1996
Office Phone: 727.553.3351
CV: View PDF
Satellite Oceanography Laboratory Website
Dr. Don P. Chambers on Google Scholar
Southern Ocean Science Website
Research: Using satellite observations to understand climate change and ocean dynamics
Dr. Chambers specializes in using satellite observations such as radar altimetry and satellite gravimetry to better understand ocean dynamics. His primary research focus is quantifying and understanding sea level variability, especially trying to separate natural climate variability from anthropogenic climate change. He in interested in all the dynamical processes that cause sea level change, including ocean circulation, ocean heat storage, ocean mass redistribution, and influx of fresh water from the continents and ice sheets.
Dr. Chambers has been a member of several NASA satellite Science Teams, including TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, and is currently a member of the NASA Ocean Surface Topography and GRACE Science Teams, and is one of four U.S. scientists to serve on the joint NASA/European Space Agency Gravity Constellation Science Team. He has been a member of U.S. CLIVAR and is currently a Lead Author on the latest climate assessment by the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Dr. Chambers was selected as the Bowie Lecturer for the 2013 Fall AGU Meeting.
Research: Role of Ocean in the Climate System, Influence of Mesoscale Eddies on Deep Ocean Processes, Ocean Mixing and the Associated Dynamical Processes, Ocean Current Measurement and Ocean State Estimates
As a physical oceanographer, Dr. Liang is interested in using a combination of observations, numerical models and theory to understand how the ocean works and how the ocean is affected by and responds to the changing climate. In particular, Dr. Liang is interested in how the heat, salt, carbon and other biogeochemical tracers are transported in the global ocean. Another of Dr. Liang’s current research interests is the dynamic processes that can supply energy to ocean mixing, and these processes mainly include internal tides, near-inertial oscillations and mesoscale eddies. Dr. Liang has extensive seagoing experience, primarily in acquiring and processing data from Lowered/Vessel-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Furthermore, he is familiar with the system of ocean state estimation (e.g. ECCO), which is powerful and has huge potential in addressing fundamental oceanographic questions.
Ph.D., University of Rhode Island, 1978
Office Phone: 727.553.1246
CV: View PDF
Selected Publications: View PDF
Marine Organic Geochemistry Laboratory Website
* Please Note: These professors are retired and are no longer accepting new students.
Since coming to the University of South Florida in 1979, my research has focused mainly on the biogeoChemical cycling of natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the marine environment. The fundamental goal of this research is to investigate how we can use these organic compounds as molecular markers to study other cycles and pathways occurring in the oceans.
Over the past several years, some specific research projects carried out in my laboratory have included the following: (1) bioChemical production, storage, and transfer of metabolic energy reserves in Antarctic mid-water food webs; (2) production and cycling of archaebacterial phytanyl ether lipids in anoxic and hypersaline oceanic systems; (3) inputs, fates, and effects of oil pollution in the marine environment; (4) use of organic biomarkers to trace inputs, dispersal and accumulation of terrestrial and urban run off; and (5) uptake and accumulation of toxic metals, hydrocarbons and pesticides by marine organisms. Although I anticipate carrying out more research in tropical-subtropical systems over the next few years, I also plan to remain involved in global programs as well. My previous research has been carried out both locally (Florida coastal waters and Gulf of Mexico) and in such other areas as the Antarctic, Italy, Mexico, Africa, and South America. In addition, cooperative programs have been carried out in Germany and China. Analytically, we are equipped with several high resolution gas chromatographs, a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, an Iatroscan lipid class analyzer, and a high performance liquid chromatograph. Also available in the Department are an organic carbon analyzer, elemental (CNH) analyzer, stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer, and most other equipment necessary for full organic geoChemical work.
Most students in my lab are engaged in the Marine Resource Assessment program and are collectively pursuing a diversity of methods that apply to living resource biology and management. The common thread is coastal fish and shellfish habitat use and quality. One research focus has been spatio-temporal interactions between coastal fishes and their prey, particularly as these are affected by freshwater flows to the coast and other physical processes. Personnel from my lab have quantified estuarine ichthyoplankton and invertebrate zooplankton responses to freshwater flows from more than 18 watersheds along Florida's west coast; these results have been used to manage environmental flows. The same type of plankton data is being used to develop community-level metrics for establishing the extent of eutrophication in coastal water bodies. In another line of research, we use stable isotope analysis to investigate factors that influence coastal biomass pathways. We also use stable isotopes to contrast fish isotopic signatures with geographic background maps (isoscapes), which allows us to identify site fidelities and movements that determine geographic habitat connectivity. Recently, we added DNA barcoding and hydrodynamic models to our effort to characterize habitat connectivity during egg and larval stages. In a related effort, we have been using otolith microchemistry (LA-ICP-MS) to connect adult fish to the geographic regions they used as nursery habitat and to detect exposure of individual fish to stressful events such as oil spills.
Research: Ice shelf systems; Glacial marine sedimentology; Biotic adjustments to ice shelf collapse; Neoproterozoic glacial events; Geochronology; Late Paleozoic glacial environments in Gondwana; Sediment geochemistry; Radiocarbon systematics in southern ocean.
Some of the most fundamental shifts in earth history have involved changes in climate state from icehouse to greenhouse conditions. Much of the work Gene is involved with revolves around understanding the changes that have taken place in Antarctica over the last glacial cycle up, to and including ice shelf disintegration of the last decade. The knowledge gained by studying the sediment facies, biotic changes, and cryosphere adjustments on the Antarctic margin, is also being applied to ongoing investigations of ancient episodes of rapid change, such as the great pan glacial events of the Neoproterozoic (the so called Snowball Earth events) and Late Paleozoic glacial sequences in the Gondwanan continents of Australia, Africa, and South America. Gene utilizes sedimentology, sediment geochemistry, and geophysics to test hypotheses related to changes in the earth's cryosphere. Ongoing projects include studies on the Otavi Platform (Namibia), the fjord lands of East Central Greenland, and in Svalbard. Work is also being conducted in the Oneida Lake basin of Upstate New York and in the Puget Lowland of Washington State, where exceptional records of deglacial events exist, both of which span important climate intervals in the Late Quaternary.
Dr. Domack is a 2011 Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a 2012 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Domack is the Director of LARISSA (LARsen Ice Shelf System, Antarctica), a National Science Foundation funded initiative that brings an international, interdisciplinary team together to address the global climate implications of the abrupt environmental change in Antarctica's Larsen Ice Shelf System. LARISSA International Partners include Belgium, Argentina, the Ukraine, and Korea.
Dean of USF College of Marine Science
Jacqueline E. Dixon
Biological Oceanography and Remote Sensing
Ph.D., University of Maryland, 1988
Office Phone: 727.553.3335
Lab Phone: 727.553.1186
CV: View PDF
Institute for Marine Remote Sensing Lab Website
Research: Changes in Marine Ecosystems Using Field-based and Satellite Remote Sensing Time Series
Frank E. Muller-Karger is a biological oceanographer (Professor) at the College of Marine Science, University of South Florida. He is of Hispanic descent via Puerto Rico, and while born in the U.S. he grew up in Venezuela. Muller-Karger conducts research on how marine ecosystems change in time. He uses time series of observations collected by traditional oceanographic methods and by satellite sensors to study changes in water quality, primary production, and biodiversity in coastal and marine environments. This research helps in understanding how large-scale phenomena, like climate change or other disturbances, affect ecosystems including people. The focus of his present work is to assess the importance of continental margins, including areas of upwelling, river discharge, and coral reefs in the global carbon budget. Muller-Karger combines the observations from different satellites to measure ocean color, sea surface temperature, winds, salinity and sea surface elevation and how these change. He uses field-based time series to measure the vertical structure of plankton and how particles settle in the ocean. Much of this work focuses on improving methods to measure the diversity of phytoplankton using remote sensing.
Muller-Karger has worked hand-in-hand with K-12 teachers and students and the public to showcase these new technologies and to highlight the importance of the ocean in our daily lives. He has a keen interest in linking science and education, and in addressing the problem of under-representation of minorities in scientific research programs. Muller-Karger was appointed by President George W. Bush to serve on the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy in 2001. In 2005, he was appointed to the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council/National Academies. He previously received the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award for Outstanding Contributions and the NASA Administrator Award for Exceptional Contribution and Service for supporting development of satellite technologies for ocean observation. From August 2007-August 2009 he served as Dean of the School for Marine Science and Technology (SMAST) at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. He has B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in marine science and a Masters degree in management, and has authored or co-authored over 120 scientific publications. He speaks fluent Spanish and German.
Ph.D., Graduate School of Oceaonography, University of Rhode Island, 1976
Office Phone: 727.553.1246
Selected Publications: View PDF
* Please Note: These professors are retired and are no longer accepting new students.
Phytoplankton ecology and physiology, dynamics of dinoflagellate and Harmful Algal Blooms, measurements of in situ growth rates, phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions, benthic microalgal production and biomass, benthic filter feeders related to bloom dynamics. More recently two projects are underway to assess the impact of phycotoxins on sea birds, shore birds and raptors.