Alve, E. (1990). Variations in estuarine foraminiferal biofacies with diminishing oxygen conditions in Drammensfjord, SE Norway. Paleoecology, Biostratigraphy, Paleoceanography and Taxonomy of Agglutinated Foraminifera, NATO ASI Series C. Mathematical and Physical Sciences. C. Hemleben, M. A. Kaminski, W. Kuhnt and D. B. Scott. 327: 661-694.

Alve, E. (1991).Benthic foraminifera in sediment cores reflecting heavy-metal pollution in Sorfjord, Western Norway. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 21(1): 1-19.
From abstract: Analysis of benthic foraminifera in two short sediment cores (15 and 53 m water depth) from heavy metal-polluted Sorfjord indicates that a faunal shift has taken place, due to heavy metal enrichment. Both cores reveal an upward transition from a moderately polluted environment represented by a Verneuilina media assemblage to an extremely polluted environment represented by an Eggerelloides scabrus assemblage. The total abundance of foraminifera decreases upward in both cores, whereas species diversity shows only a minor decrease. The frequent occurrence of abnormal and pyritized specimens is attributed to the effects of pollution. Seven different modes of test deformation are described.

Alve, E. (1995). Benthic foraminiferal responses to estuarine pollution: a review. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(3): 190-203.
From abstract: Benthic foraminiferal distributions in polluted marine areas have been investigated over the last three to four decades, and several workers have pointed out that they provide one of the most sensitive and inexpensive markers available for indicating deterioration of marginal marine environments. Most investigations have been carried out in temperate regions, in areas exposed to several pollution sources. Environments characterized by organic waste contamination (e.g., sewage or paper and pulp mills) have been addressed more frequently than areas exposed to oil, thermal and various other kinds of pollution. Pollution effects on the biota in estuaries can best be evaluated by comparing the natural, pre-pollution assemblages with those of the present day. The presence of empty foraminiferal tests in sediment cores penetrating through contaminated intervals provides this kind of information, but possible diagenetic alterations of the original assemblages must always be considered.

Alve, E. (1995). Benthic foraminiferal distribution and recolonization of formerly anoxic environments in Drammensfjord, Southern Norway. Marine Microplaeontology 25(2-3): 169-186.
From abstract: Investigations of living (stained) benthic foraminifera in the surface (0-1 cm) sediments along a depth transect in Drammensfjord, southern Norway, have been carried out on samples collected in 1984 and during all four seasons in 1988. The transect runs through strongly variable environments from a well oxygenated, brackish surface layer to anoxic waters of slightly less than normal marine salinity. The objectives were to study foraminiferal recolonization patterns after a prolonged period (> 5 years) of nearly permanent anoxic bottom water conditions in the lower parts of the transect, the seasonal stability of the assemblages after recolonization, and interspecific tolerances to various environmental parameters (i.e., temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water depth).

Alve, E. and J. W. Murray (1995). Benthic foraminiferal distribution and abundance changes in Skagerrak surface sediments: 1937 (Hoglund) and 1992/1993 data compared. Marine Micropaleontology, 25(4): 269-288.
From abstract: Both living (stained) and dead (unstained) foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediments (0-2 cm) in the northwestern part of the Skagerrak have been studied in order to (1) define and characterize the distribution of various modern benthic environments and (2) by comparing these findings with surface samples collected 40-60 years ago, to document possible faunal changes that might have occurred. Comparison with data collected 40 to 60 years ago shows increases in absolute numbers of tests. The dominant species found in 1937 are different from those of 1992/1993. There is a major change in the basin where one agglutinated species has changed its depth distribution downslope and two present day abundant species are new arrivals. These faunal events are probably linked to environmental changes.


Alve, E. and F. Olsgard (1999). Benthic foraminiferal colonization in experiments with copper-contaminated sediments. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 29(3): 186-195.
From abstract: Colonization experiments, carried out over a 32-week period at 63 m water depth in the Oslofjord, Norway, have shown that sediment Cu-concentrations of greater than 900 ppm cause a change in the living (stained) foraminiferal community structure as compared to control values of 70 ppm. There was no significant decrease in the number of species with increasing sediment Cu-enrichment. This indicates that not even sediment [Cu] greater than 2000 ppm had a severe negative impact on the foraminiferal species ability to colonize. One prominent effect of the Cu-contamination is that, at concentrations higher than about 900 ppm, the opportunistic and dominant S. fusiformis developed an increasingly patchy distribution pattern. Cu-contaminated sediments alone do not seem to promote development of deformed hard-shelled foraminiferal tests beyond the normal range.

Angel, D. L., S. Verghese, J. J. Lee, A. M. Saleh, D. Zuber, D. Lindell, and A. Symons (2000). Impact of a net cage fish farm on the distribution of benthic foraminifera in the Northern Gulf of Eilat (Aqaba, Red Sea). Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 30(1): 54-65.
From abstract: Two sediment transects, at 23 m depth, were sampled below a commercial fish farm at the northern end of the Gulf of Eilat in order to describe the benthic foraminiferal community along an organic enrichment gradient. Fifty-one species of foraminifera were found in the sediments around the fish farm but most were rare species. The most abundant species found were Amphisorus hemprichii, Amphistegina lessonii, Assilina ammonoides, Borelis schlumbergeri, Challengerella bradyi, Hauerina diversa and Peneroplis planatus. Abundances of foraminifera were highest in the "hypertrophic" zone, adjacent to the fish cages. The most abundant species showed negative correlations between total abundance of tests and organic matter in the upper centimeter of the sediment. Negative correlations were also found between abundances of both total and stained tests of the most abundant species and integrated ammonia concentrations. No clear indicator species of the organically-enriched benthos were identified. Deformed tests (mainly P. planatus)were observed in samples and it is not clear whether they formed as a result of adverse conditions related to the fish farm because such variants also occurred at unenriched sites.

Atkinson, K. (1969). The association of living foraminifera with algae from the littoral zone, south Cardigan Bay, Wales. Journal of Natural History, 3: 517-542.

Bandy, O., J. C. Ingle, Jr, and J. M.Resig (1964). Foraminifera, Los Angeles County outfall area, California. Limnology and Oceanography, 9: 124-137.

Bandy, O., J. C. Ingle, Jr, and J. M.Resig (1964). Foraminiferal trends, Laguna Beach outfall area, California. Limnology and Oceanography, 9(1): 112-123.

Bandy, O., J. C. Ingle, Jr, and J. M.Resig (1965). Modification of foraminiferal trends, Hyperion Outfall, California. Limnology and Oceanography, 10: 314-332.

Bandy, O., J. C. Ingle, Jr, and J. M.Resig (1965). Modifications of foraminiferal distributions by the Orange County outfall, California. Marine Technology Society, Transactions, 54-76.

Banerji, R. K. (1973). Benthic foraminifera as an aid to recognize polluted environments. Indian Science Congress Association, Proceedings, 60th Session, No. 60, part 4.

Banerji, R. K. (1989). Foraminifera and discrimination of polluted environments along the Bombay Coast, Kalia, Prabha. Micropaleontology of the Shelf Sequences of India. Indian Colloquium on Micropaleontology and Stratigraphy, University of New Delhi, New Delhi, India, v. 12, p. 98-117.

Banerji, R. K. (1992). Heavy metals and benthic foraminifera distribution along Bombay Coast, India: Benthos '90, Sendai. Studies on Benthic Foraminifera, Sendai, Tokai University Press, p. 151-157.

Barmawidjaja, D. M., G. J. Van der Zwaan, F. J. Jorrisen, and S. Puskaric (1995). 150 years of eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: evidence from a benthic foraminiferal record. Marine Geology, 122: 367-384.

Bates, J. M. and R. S. Spencer (1979). Modification of foraminiferal trends by the Chesapeake-Elizabeth sewage outfall, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 9(2): 125-140.

Bernhard, J. M., B. K. Sen Gupta, and P. F. Borne (1997). Benthic foraminiferal proxy to estimate dysoxic bottom-water oxygen concentrations: Santa Barbara Basin, U. S. Pacific continental margin. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 27: 301-310.

Bernhard, J. M. and S. S. Bowser (1999). Benthic foraminifera of dysoxic sediments: chloroplast sequestration and functional morphology. Earth Science Reviews, 46: 149-165.

Bhalla, S. N. and R. Nigam (1986). Recent foraminifera from polluted marine environment of Velsao Beach, South Goa, India. Revue Paleobiologia, 5: 43-46.

Boltovskoy, E., D. B. Scott, and F. S. Medioli (1991). Morphological variations of benthic foraminiferal tests in response to changes in ecological parameters: a review. Journal of Paleontology, 65(2): 175-185.
From abstract: Some of the relatively recent literature correlating morphological variation in benthic foraminifera with environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, carbonate solubility, depth, nutrition, substrate, dissolved oxygen, illumination, pollution, water motion, trace elements, and rapid environmental fluctuation is reviewed. It appears some variables (most notably depth) are recorded more frequently, which may affect some conclusions. The broad trends concern thinning or thickening of carbonate tests with changing carbonate availability, temperature, and salinity.

Bresler, V. and V. Yanko (1995). Acute toxicity of heavy-metals for benthic epiphytic foraminifera Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) and influence of seaweed-derived DOC. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14(10): 1687-1695.
From abstract: The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury to the benthic epiphytic foraminifera Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) was investigated using seven different vital cytophysiological and cytochemical methods. The ability to enzymatically hydrolyze the fluorogenic substrates fluorescein diacetate or fluorescein dibutyrate was the most sensitive method of LC50 value determination. The LC50 (24-h) values for cadmium, copper, and mercury determined by this assay with fluorescein diacetate was 0.56, 1.4, and 0.07 mu M, respectively. The content of seaweed-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC), measured by absorbance at 436 nm, produced a dramatic increase of LC50 values for the heavy metals in a dose-dependent manner. ''Intact'' epiphytic foraminifera attached to seaweeds are less sensitive to acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury than are ''detached'' foraminifera.

Bresler, V. and V. Yanko (1995). Chemical ecology: a new approach to the study of living benthic epiphytic foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(3): 267-279.
From abstract: Interactions of living benthic epiphytic foraminifera with unidentified natural organic compounds (UNOC) derived from decomposed seaweeds, heavy metal ions and three tracer xenobiotics, acridine organge, neutral red and fluorecein, were investigated. The presence of UNOC in seawater decreased acute toxicity of heavy metal ions for foraminifera. The state of the defense system against xenobiotics in benthic epiphytic foraminifera can serve as a very sensitive biomarker for monitoring and predication of ecological consequences of anthropogenic pollution.

Brewster-Wingard, G. L., S. E. Ishman, and C. W. Holmes (1998). Environmental impacts on the southern Florida coastal waters: a history of change in Florida Bay. Journal of Coastal Research, 26: 162-172.

Brewster-Wingard, G. L. and S. E. Ishman (1999). Historical trends in salinity and substrate in central Florida Bay: a paleoecological reconstruction using modern analogue data. Estuaries, 22(2B): 369-383.
From abstract: Understanding the natural spatial and temporal variability that exists within an ecosystem is a critical component of efforts to restore systems to their natural state. Analysis of benthic foraminifers and molluscs from modern monitoring sites within Florida Bay allows us to determine what environmental parameters control spatial and temporal variability of their assemblages. Changes in interpreted salinity patterns around the turn of the century are consistent with the timing of the construction of the Flagler Railroad from 1905 to 1912, and the Tamiami Trail and the canal and levee systems between 1915 and 1928. Beginning around 1940, the changes in the frequency and amplitude of salinity fluctuations may be related to changes in water management practices, meteorologic events (frequent hurricanes coupled with severe droughts in 1943 and 1944), or a combination of factors. The correspondence of these changes in Florida Bay with changes in the terrestrial Everglades suggests factors affecting the entire ecosystem are responsible for the salinity and substrate patterns seen in Florida Bay.

Brink, B. J. E., S. H. Hosper, and F. Colijn (1991). A quantitative method for description and assessment of ecosystems: the AMOEBA approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 23: 265-270.

Caralp, M. H. (1984). Impact of organic matter on benthic foraminifera found beneath highly intensive productive zones. Oceanologica Acta, 7(4): 509-515.

Coccioni, R. (2000). Benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: a case study from the Goro Lagoon (Italy). In R. Martin ed. Environmental Micropaleontology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 71-103.

Cockey, E., P. Hallock, and B. H. Lidz (1996). Decadal-scale changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblages off Key Largo, Florida. Coral Reefs, 15: 237-248.
From abstract: Assemblages of foraminiferal tests in sediments sampled off Key Large, Florida, in 1982, 1991, and 1992 were significantly different from assemblages sampled along the same traverses in 1959-1961. Larger, algal symbiont-bearing taxa, primarily Soritidae, comprised 50-80% of the specimens in samples collected in 1959-1961, whereas Miliolidae and Rotaliidae comprised 65-90% of the specimens collected in 1991 and 1992. The shift in dominance from long-lived, algal symbiont-bearing taxa in 1959-1961 to small, fast-growing, heterotrophic taxa in 1992 is consistent with predictions of community response to gradually increasing nutrient flux into south Florida's coastal waters. This study indicates that published accounts of foraminiferal assemblages from sediments collected 30 or more years ago can be valuable resources in efforts to determine if biotic changes have occurred in coastal ecosystems.

Collins, E. S., D. B. Scott, P. T. Gayes, and F. S Medioli (1995). Foraminifera in the Winyah Bay and North Inlet marshes, South Carolina: a relationship to local pollution sources. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25: 212-223.
From abstract: South Carolina has an extensive, low-lying coastal plain system which has not been investigated for Recent benthic foraminifera. Grab samples were collected in the Intracoastal Waterway/Winyah Bay (a highly polluted estuarine system) and nearshore localities show the effects of combined organic matter pollution and high riverine discharge. Typical estuarine assemblages appear to be displaced offshore as a result of these effects. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in samples from transects in nearby North Inlet marsh do not appear to be afected by the polluted waters of Winyah Bay.

Culver, S. J. and M. A. Buzas (1995). The effects of anthropogenic habitat disturbance, habitat destruction, and global warming on shallow marine benthic foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(3): 204-211.
From abstract: Protists such as benthic foraminifera are not immune to the effects of global warming or to shallow marine environmental degradation and destruction caused by the activities of humans. Increasing environmental stresses are likely to lead, in the near future, to disruption and dynamic restructuring of communities, localized extinctions of both rare and abundant species, and total extinction of rare species (and, perhaps, abundant species) in the shallow marine environment. Low latitude and/or developed coastal environments and communities are likely to experience the greatest changes. The role of benthic foraminifera in the trophic structure of shallow marine communities dictates that many other organisms will be affected by changes in the structure and diversity of shallow marine foraminiferal populations.

Dauer, D. M. (1993). Biological criteria, environmental health and estuarine macrobenthic comminity structure. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26: 249-257.

Debenay, J. P. (1990). Recent foraminiferal assemblages and their distribution relative to environmental stress in the paralic environments of West Africa (Cape Timiris to Ebrie Lagoon). Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 20(3): 267-282.

Debenay, J. P., E. Tsakiridis, R. Soulard, and H. Grossel (2000). Factors determining the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages in Port Joinville Harbor (Ile d'Yeu, France): the influence of pollution. Marine Micropaleontology, 43(1-2): 75-118.
From abstract: Port Joinville harbor is located on an island. Thus, it receives only a few freshwater inputs, contrary to most of the areas where the influence of pollution on foraminiferal assemblages has been studied. The pollution in the harbor mainly results from the boats, including cleaning, painting and outfall of oil and motor-fuel. This study shows that the main factor that determines the distribution of foraminiferal species in Port Joinville harbor is the geographical position. The correlation that occurs between heavy metals and the silt and clay fraction makes it difficult to determine whether sediment characteristics or pollution have the stronger influence on foraminiferal assemblages, except in areas heavily affected by pollution.

Debenay, J. P., E. Geslin, B. B. Eichler, W. Duleba, F. Sylvestre, and P. Eichler (2001). Foraminiferal assemblages in a hypersaline lagoon, A raruama (RJ) Brazil. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 31(2): 133-151.
From abstract: Foraminiferal assemblages were studied in 93 samples collected in the lagoon of Araruama and in the adjacent area. The lagoon of Araruama is one of the largest hypersaline lagoons in the world, with a salinity range of 52-65 ppt. Historical reports show that the lagoon has been hypersaline since at least the 16th century. Foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by miliolids, mainly Triloculina oblonga, and rotaliids, with Ammonia tepida and the less abundant Cribroelphidium excavatum var. selseyense. Textulariids are almost absent. This assemblage is similar to those usually reported from hypersaline lagoons with sandy carbonate-rich sediments and from salt marshes. A high proportion of aberrant tests was observed. Anthropogenic stresses do not seem to be responsible for these morphological abnormalities, which are attributed to high salinity conditions and to changes of salinity. However, the higher proportion of Ammonia tepida in the more impacted northern part of the lagoon is probably due to human impact.

Ebrahim, M. T. (2000). Impact of anthropogenic environmental change on larger foraminifera. In R. Martin ed. Environmental Micropaleontology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 105-117.

Ellison, R. L., R. Broome, and R. Ogilive (1986). Foraminiferal response to trace metal contamination in Patapsco Rive and Baltimore Harbor, Maryland.Marine Pollution Bulletin, 17(9): 419-423.

Ferraro, S. P. and F. A. Cole (1995). Taxonomic level sufficient for assessing pollution impacts on the Southern California Bight macrobenthos: revisited. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14: 1031-1035.

Ferraro, S. P., R. C. Swart, F. A. Cole, and D. W. Schultz (1991). Temporal changes in the benthos along a pollution gradient: discriminating the effects of natural phenomena from sewage-industrial wastewater effects. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 33: 383-407.

Grant, J., A. Hatcher, D. B. Scott, P. Pocklington, C. T. Schafer, and G. V. Winters (1995). A multidisciplinary approach to evaluating impacts of shellfish aquaculture on benthic communities. Estuaries, 18 (1A): 124-144.
From abstract: The impact of suspended mussel culture ( Mytilus edulis, M. trossulus) on the benthos of a small Nova Scotia cove (7 m depth) was assessed using methods involving both benthic metabolism and community structure. Due to deposition of mussel feces and pseudofeces, sedimentation rate was higher under the mussel culture lines than at an adjacent reference site of similar sediment texture. Porewater profiles of sediment sulfate and sulfide indicated greater anaerobic metabolism at the mussel site than at the reference site, but sulfide tvas absent from the upper centimeters of sediments under the mussels. Seasonal measures of sediment oxygen-demand showed little change between sites, but maximum rates of ammonium release at the mussel site were twice the highest rates measured at the reference site. Abundance of benthic macrofauna was higher at the reference site, but biomass was generally lower. Biomass at the mussel site was dominated by molluscs (llyanassa spp. and Nucula tenuisulcata), that were attracted to mussels fallen from the culture and/or enriched organic matter due to biodeposition. Species diversity was lower at the reference site due to the dominance of the polychaete Nephtys neotena. Abundance-biomass comparisons (ABC method) of faunal analysis did not indicate any impact of biodeposition at this site; however, disturbance did not result in a typical assemblage of small opportunistic species anticipated with this method. Cluster analysis of macrofauna usually provided a clear separation between the sites. Since the construction of a causeway (1968), foraminifera species composition showed a temporal response to temperature changes in the cove by shifting toward calcareous species, but assemblages downcore showed little or no relationship to aquaculture impacts. Although there is a shift toward anaerobic metabolism at the mussel lines, the impact of mussels falling to the sediments was more noticeable in benthic community structure than was any impact due to organic sedimentation or hypoxia. In general the impact of aquaculture on the benthos appeared to be minor. Further assesment of these consequences may mandate both taxonomic and energetic approaches to impact assessment.

Geslin, E., J. P. Debenay, and M. Lesourd (1998). Abnormal wall textures and test deformation in Ammonia (hyaline foraminifer). Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 28(2): 148-156.
From abstract: The deformations of foraminiferal tests have been studied in the genus Ammonia. This study is based on the observations of aberrant test morphology and wall texture using a scanning electron microscope. The various deformations have been classified into eleven groups according to the affected part of the test and to the nature of the deformation. Two hypotheses for the formation of these aberrant textures, related with test deformation, are suggested: 1) crystalline disorganizations may be caused by a stress imposed to the crystalline framework by introduction of alien trace elements, and 2) cavities in the wall probably result from a thickening of the organic matrix that can be caused either by a change in physical and chemical conditions or by food shortage in the environment. These hypotheses are consistent with data reported in the literature which infer that test deformations may have been caused by 1) pollution such as heavy metal contamination; 2) change of physical and chemical parameters; and 3) shortage of nutrients in the environment.

Gonzales-Oreja, J. A. and J. I. Saiz-Salinas (1998). Exploring the relationship between abiotic variables and benthic community structure in a polluted estuarine system. Water Research, 32: 3799-3807.

Gustafsson, M., I. Dahllof I, H. Blanck, P. Hall, S. Molander, K. Nordberg (2000). Benthic foraminiferal tolerance to tri-n-butyltin (TBT) pollution in an experimental mesocosm. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40 (12): 1072-1075.
From abstract: Tri-n-butyltin (TBT) has been used in the marine environment as a toxic agent in antifouling paints, but unfortunately it also has negative effects on non-target organisms in the environment. In this study, intact coastal sediment was exposed for seven months to three levels of TBT corresponding to nominal additions of 0.00, 0.02 and 2.00 nmol TBT per g dry sediment. This paper presents the first attempt to find out how living benthic foraminifera respond to TBT, Increased foraminiferal abundance in the 0.02 nmol mesocosm could be an effect of decreased predation (competition), since other representatives of meiofauna and macrofauna tended to be less tolerant to TBT, Increasing toxicity in the most contaminated mesocosm group (2.00 nmol) resulted in a less abundant foraminiferal population suggesting that TBT affects the foraminiferal community.

Hallock, P. (1988). Diversification in algal symbiont-bearing foraminifera: a response to oligotrophy? Revue de Paleobiologie. Volume Special 2, 789-797.

Hallock, P. (1996). Amphistegina (Foraminiferida) densities as a practical, reliable, low-cost indicator or coral reef vitality. In M. P. Crosby, G. R. Gibson and K. W. Potts eds. A Coral Reef Symposium on Practical, Reliable, Low Cost Monitoring Methods for Assessing the Biota and Habitat Conditions of Coral Reefs, Silver Spring, MD, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 37-44.

Hallock, P.(2000). Larger foraminifera as indicators of coral-reef vitality. In Ronald Martin, ed. Marine Micropaleontology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 121-150.

Hallock , P. (2000). Symbiont-bearing foraminifera: harbingers of global change? Micropaleontology, 46(Suppliment 1): 95-104.
From abstract: Rapidly increasing human populations are altering the Earth's environments at unprecedented rates. Foraminifera have recorded countless global change events in the geologic record, ranging from the subtle to mass extinction events. Taxa suspected to have harbored algal endosymbionts, particularly the larger benthic foraminifera and planktonic foraminifera characteristic of warm, shallow surface waters of the pelagic realm, have typically responded dramatically to environmental changes. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are known to be sensitive to coastal nutrification; large, symbiont-bearing foraminifera lose dominance to small, fast-growing herbivorous and detritivorous species when nutrient supply increases in tropical reef-associated environments. Symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera also appear to be sensitive to increasing intensities of biologically-damaging ultraviolet radiation, exhibiting damage to symbionts, calcification and reproduction anomolies, as well as increased susceptibility to infestation and predation.

Hallock, P. (In press). Foraminifera as bioindicators in coral reef assessment and monitoring: the FORAM Index. Environmental Assessment and Monitoring.
Coral reef communities are threatened worldwide. Resource managers urgently need indicators of the biological condition of reef environments that can relate data acquired through remote-sensing, water-quality and benthic-community monitoring to stress responses in reef organisms. The žFORAMÓ (Foraminifers in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) Index is based on 30 years of research on reef sediments and reef-dwelling larger foraminifers, including well-established criteria. 1)Foraminifers are widely used as environmental and paleoenvironmental indicators in many contexts. 2)Reef-building, zooxanthellate corals and foraminifers with algal symbionts have similar water-quality requirements. 3)The relatively short life spans of foraminifers as compared with long-lived colonial corals facilitates differentiation between long-term water-quality decline and episodic stress events. 4)Foraminifers are relatively small and abundant, permitting statistically significant sample sizes to be collected quickly and relatively inexpensively, ideally as a component of comprehensive monitoring programs. 5)Collection of foraminifers has minimal impact on reef resources.The FORAM Index (FI) utilizes foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediments of reef-associated environments. The index can provide resource managers with a simple procedure for determining the suitability of benthic environments for communities dominated by algal symbiotic organisms. The FI can be applied independently or incorporated into existing or planned monitoring efforts. It involves simple calculations that require limited computer capabilities and therefore can be readily applied to reef-associated environments worldwide. In addition, the foraminiferal shells collected can be subjected to morphometric and geochemical analyses in areas of suspected heavy-metal pollution, and the data sets for the index can be used with other monitoring data in detailed multidimensional assessments.

Jayaraju, N. and K. R. Reddi(1996). Impact of pollution on coastal zone monitoring with benthic foraminifera of Tuticorin, south east coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 25 (4): 376-378.
From abstract: Magnitude of corrosive effect, lower than normal ornamentation sutural thickenings, pores enlargement and widening of apertures in foraminifera were taken as indices of pollution impact on the coastal zone of Tuticorin. Pollution causes reduced diversity with a decrease in foraminiferal population. More over, there is a reduction in size followed by test wall thickening in Ammonia and Florilus and dispersal and dilution of the pollutants resulting faunal abundances. The effluents effect presents morphological anomalies like erosion along peripheries, abnormal growth of the end chambers inferred dissolution and consequent destruction of small thin walled biota.

Josefson, A. B. and B. Widbom (1988). Differential response of benthic macrofauna and meiofauna to hypoxia in the Gullmar Fjord basin. Marine Biology, 100: 31-40.

Karlsen, A.W., T.M. Cronin, S.E. Ishman, D.A. Willard, C.W. Holmes, M. Marot, and R. Kerhin (2000). Historical trends in Chesapeake Bay dissolved oxygen based on benthic foraminifera from sediment cores. Estuaries, 23(4): 488-508.
From abstract: Environmentally sensitive benthic foraminifera (protists) from Chesapeake Bay were used as bioindicators to estimate the timing and degree of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) over the past five centuries. Paleoecological analyses show that Ammonia parkinsoniana was absent prior to the late 17th century, increased to 10-25% relative frequency between approximately 1670-1720 and 1810-1900, and became the dominant (60-90%) benthic foraminiferal species in channel environments beginning in the early 1970s. Since the 1970s, deformed tests of A. parkinsoniana occur in all cores (10-20% of Ammonia), suggesting unprecedented stressful benthic conditions.

Kautsky, L. (1998). Monitoring eutrophication and pollution in estuarine environments-focusing on the use of benthic communities. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 70: 2313-2318.

Kopapanicoloau, K. J. and H. I. Hirshfield(1978). Recent benthonic foraminifera as marine pollution indicators. Journal of Protozoology, 25 (3): A30-A30.

LeFurgey, A. and J. St. Jean (1976). Foraminifera in brackish-water ponds designed for waste control and aquaculture studies in North Carolina. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 6: 274-294.
From abstract: Seasonal and areal abundances of foraminifera were measured and compared for two sets of artificial ponds. Elphidium clavatum was the most commonly occurring species in both effluent and control ponds. Species diversity was approximately 20 percent higher and average numbers of living foraminifera were approximately 5 times greater in control ponds than in the effluent ponds. Neither the three contol ponds nor the three effluent ponds were true replicates. Microenvironmental differences in oxygen, pH, type and concentration of food supply made foraminiferal distributions erratic.

Lidz, B. H. and P. R. Rose (1989). Diagnostic foraminiferal assemblages of Florida Bay and adjacent shallow waters: A comparison. Bulletin of Marine Science, 44(1): 399-418.
From abstract: Ecologic studies of benthic foraminifera in Florida Bay indicate that (1) the bay is a specialized restricted platform interior environment; (2) its fauna is divisible into three subfaunas: nearshore, mudbank, and "lake"; (3) substrate, currents, wave intensity, and wave direction affect local distribution but do not alter regional patterns; and (4) faunal assemblages rather than individual species of foraminifera are diagnostic environmental indicators as many species range over several faunal zones. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy on a platform, whether modern or ancient, should involve determination of ecologic patterns of family distribution, similarities of test structure, ratios between faunal groups, and general trends of populations.

Martin, R. (2000). Environmental Micropaleontology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, p. 481.

Moodley, L., S. R. Troelstra, T. C. E. Vanweering (1993). Benthic foraminferal response to environmental change in the Skagerrak, Northeastern North Sea. Sarsia, 78(2): 129-139.
From abstract: Studies of the benthic macrofauna (both quantitative and qualitative) conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat over a period of many years together with comparisons made with data collected in 1914 have led to the conclusion that the area is undergoing eutrophication. The general increase in biomass and densities of macrofauna has been attributed to an increased supply of degradable organic matter to the sediment. In this study, the effect of eutrophication on benthic foraminifera is shown in a comparison of foraminiferal data from Recent sediment layers (the upper 2 cm of short sediment cores) with layers deposited more than 42 years B.P. (24-25 cm core interval).

Moodley, L., B. E. M. Schaub, G. J. Van der Zwaan, and P. M. J. Herman (1998). Tolerance of benthic foraminifera (Protista : Sarcodina) to hydrogen sulphide. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 169: 77-86.
From abstract: Benthic foraminifera are dominant members of the meiofauna, commonly occurring below the anoxic-oxic interface in marine sediments. The absence of oxygen in marine coastal sediments is often correlated with the formation of hydrogen sulphide. In this study the tolerance of benthic foraminifera (from the northwestern Adriatic Sea) to hydrogen sulphide was examined experimentally. Although the foraminiferal assemblage exhibited a high tolerance to short-term exposure (21 d), prolonged exposure to sulphidic conditions (66 d with a final concentration of 12 mu M dissolved hydrogen sulphide) resulted in a significant reduction of total foraminiferal densities with time.
Reproduction was evident under oxic conditions but none of the genera proliferated under sulphidic conditions. This implies that tolerance of sulphidic conditions was restricted to survival and that sulphide may be a prominent distributional factor for benthic foraminifera.

Nagy, J. and E. Alve (1987). Temporal changes in foraminiferal faunas and impact of pollution in Sandebukta, Oslo Fjord. Marine Micropaleontology, 12(2): 109-128.

Rao, K. K. and T. S. Rao (1979).Studies of pollution ecology of foraminifera of the Trivandrum coast. Indian Journal of Marine Science, 8: 31-35.

Resig, J. M. (1960). Foraminiferal ecology around ocean outfalls off southern California. Waste Disposal in the Marine Environment, Pergamon Press: 104-121.

Ricci, N. (1991). Protozoa as tools in population assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22: 265-268.

Ros, J. D. and M. J. Cardell (1991). Effect on benthic communities of a major input of organic matter and other pollutants (coast of Barcelona, western Mediterranean). Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 31(2): 441-450.

Samir, A. M. (2000). The response of benthic foraminifera and ostracods to various pollution sources: A study from two lagoons in Egypt. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 30(2): 83-98.
From abstract: A study of foraminiferal assemblages was carried out at two Egyptian Nile Delta lagoons. Analysis of surficial sediment samples from Manzalah Lagoon shows enrichment in heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Cd). The environment has become so lethal to foraminifera that no species can currently survive. Among ostracods, only one species (Cyprideis torosa) was found living and able to invade the polluted lagoon region. Samples from Edku Lagoon, which receives only agricultural drainage water, show heavy metal concentrations close to natural baseline levels, and yield living foraminifera. The frequent occurrence of deformed specimens in Manzalah Lagoon, comparable to Edku Lagoon, reveals that: (1) benthic foraminifera are more sensitive to industrial wastes containing heavy metals; (2) agricultural wastes do not significantly harm benthic foraminifera; (3)Ammonia beccarii forma parkinsoniana is less resistant to pollution than forma tepida; (4) morphological abnormalities of the foraminiferal tests depend upon the nature of the pollutant; and (5) benthic foraminifera are less tolerant to pollution than ostracods and molluscs.

Samir, A. M. and A. B. El-Din (2001). Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and morphological abnormalities as pollution proxies in two Egyptian bays. Marine Micropaleontology, 41(3-4): 193-227.
From abstract: A detailed comparative study of Recent benthic foraminiferal populations was conducted at two bays (El-Mex and Miami) located along the Mediterranean coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Porcellaneous forms were dominant, comprising 65% and 68% of the total population in El-Mex and Miami bays, respectively. El-Mex is one of the most metal-polluted areas along the Alexandrian coast. It is contaminated by industrial wastes, chiefly heavy metals, as well as agricultural and domestic effluents. Increasing pollution results in low species diversity and population density, associated with an increase in tolerant or opportunistic species. The extent to which population was found to be impoverished corresponded to the degree to which the sediment was contaminated. In this contaminated environment, foraminiferal tests were stunted and aberrant tests were frequently found. Species diversity and population density were higher in Miami Bay (domestic sewage) and deformed forms were scarce. X-ray microanalysis reveals that living deformed specimens contain higher levels of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) than non-deformed ones. This strongly suggests that heavy metals are responsible for the abnormalities in foraminiferal tests. The study illustrates that the mode of test deformation depends upon the degree of pollution and type of pollutants. Benthic foraminifera reflect human-induced environmental perturbation and they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring coastal pollution.

Schafer, C. T. (1970). Studies of benthic foraminifera in Restigouche Estuary: faunal distribution near pollution sources. Maritime Sediments, 6: 121-134.

Schafer, C. T. (1973). Distribution of foraminifera near pollution sources in Chaleur Bay. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 2: 219-233.

Schafer, C. T. (1982). Foraminiferal colonization of an offshore dump site in Chaleur Bay, New Brunswick, Canada. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 12(4): 317-326.
From abstract: Living benthonic foraminifera populations were surveyed at the Chaleur Bay ocean disposal site on month after the cessation of dumping activity in September, 1978, and again two years later in September, 1980. After one month, the pioneer species Eggerella advena and Ammotium cassis had repopulated most of the dumpsite substrate. All localities were repopulated by 1980 and the proportion of E. advena showed an increase relative to A. cassis. The total number of living species observed increased from 13 in 1978 to 37 in 1980. The average population density in terms of the number of living specimens per cc of wet sediment increased form 3.1 in 1978 to 27.1 in 1980.

Schafer, C. T. (2000). Monitoring nearshore marine environments using benthic foraminifera: some protocols and pitfalls. Micropaleontology, 46, Supplement 1: 161-169.

Schafer, C. T., F. J. E. Wagner, and C. Ferguson (1975). Occurrence of foraminifera, molluscs and ostracods adjacent to the industrialized shoreline of Canso Strait, Nova Scotia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 5: 79-96.

Schafer, C. T., J. N. Smith, G. Seibert (1983). Significance of natural and anthropogenic sediment inputs to the Saguenay fjord, Quebec. Sedimentary Geology, 36: 177-194.

Schafer, C. T., E. S. Collins, J. N. Smith (1991). Relationship of Foraminifera and thecamoebian distributions to sediments contaminated by pulp mill effluent: Saguenay Fjord, Quebec, Canada. Marine Micropaleontology, 17(3-4): 255-283.
From abstract: Gravity cores and grab samples collected in the Saguenay Fiord between 1976 and 1988 contain the record of a 20th century benthic marine environment contaminated primarily by organic matter discharges from several local pulp and paper mills. Spiroplectammina biformis is the dominant arenaceous species. Its living percent abundance decreases between 1982 and 1988 as a consequence of the apparent recolonization of the upper reaches of the fiord by several arenaceous taxa, the most important being Textularia earlandi. Cassidulina reniforme , the dominant living calcareous species, shows about a three fold increase in relative abundance over the six year interval. Grab sample observations also suggest a recolonization of some formerly barren benthic environments near the head of the fiord by foraminiferal species between 1982 and 1988. This recolonization may reflect the combined effect of government regulations imposed on local industrial polluters in the early 1970's and the capping of a large area of contaminated sediment by a layer of clay that was transported to the basin at the head of the fiord as the result of a catastrophic landslide in 1971.

Schafer, C. T., G. V. Winters, D. B. Scott, P. Pocklington, F. E. Cole, and C. Honig (1995). Survey of living foraminifera and polychaete populations at some Canadian aquaculture sites: potential for impact mapping and monitoring. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25: 236-259.
From abstract: Living benthic foraminifera and polychaetes have potential as robust elements of assemblage models that can be used to monitor the temporal and spatial impact of organic matter (OM) fluxes from various kinds of marine aquaculture operations on local benthic environments, Of 148 samples analyzed for foraminifera in this survey of finfish and mollusk farms, 48 contained no living specimens, Thirty-three of the 48 barren samples were collected during summer/autumn when anthropogenic and natural OM fluxes are highest, and bottom-water oxygen concentrations can become severely depressed, At the four sites in Atlantic Canada, OM concentrations in the 0-2 cm layer of bottom sediment ranged from 4 to 26%, and there was a general inverse association, more pronounced during the summer months, between species per sample and mean OM, Some abundant calcareous species (e.g., Buccella frigida, Haynesina orbiculare and Elphidium excavatum) show seasonal variation in addition to their apparent response to OM contamination, Seasonal variation is also evident among prominent arenaceous taxa (e.g., Hemisphaerammina bradyi). These temporal variations are superimposed on distinctive spatial changes in assemblage character that occur in passing from control environments to heavily OM-contaminated areas located directly below fish cages and mussel lines, Species diversity usually increases at sites where average sediment OM levels are less than about 15%. The five most abundant polychaetes in a 14-sample set show a wide range of sensitivity to both direct (food source) and indirect (low oxygen concentration) effects of OM loading. Nephtys neotena shows a weak direct relationship to OM that is consistent with its ubiquitous spatial and temporal distribution. As benthic conditions become less contaminated by OM at mussel line sites, N. neotena is replaced by forms such as Pholoe minuta during the reduced-stress winter/spring interval, Other taxa are restricted solely to proximal, OM-enriched aquaculture settings, a feature that they share with some of the opportunistic foraminiferal species, Nepthys neotena and Cossura longicirrata are part of this apparently OM-tolerant assemblage.

Scott, D. B., C. T. Schafer, C. Honig, D. C. Younger (1995). Temporal variations of benthic foraminiferal assemblages under or near aquaculture operations: documentation and impact history. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25: 224-235.
From abstract: Temporal data derived from foraminiferal and tintinnid assemblages show the nature of changing paleoenvironment beneath two different aquaculture operations. Under the finfish operation there is a detectable visual effect on sediment color and texture caused by loading of fish food and fecal material, but there is little environmental impact suggested from the foraminifera. Tintinnids appear to flourish in the presence of aquaculture operations at one site, At shellfish sites there was no environmental impact detected in the microfossil data and no visible evidence in the sediment to suggest organic matter loading. Foraminiferal assemblages in cores provide the only means of obtaining ''a priori'' information on benthic habitats in these environments. The tintinnids may provide a biological tracer of pelagic movements of organic material, even if that material is not settling out locally.

Setty, M. G. A. P. (1976). The relative sensitivity of benthonic foraminifera in the polluted marine environment of Cola Bay, Goa. VI Indian Colloquium of Micropaleontology and Stratigraphy.

Setty, M. G. A. P. (1982). Pollution effects monitoring with foraminifera as indices in the Thana Creek, Bombay area. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 18: 205-209.

Setty, M. G. A. P. and R. Nigam (1984). Benthic foraminifera as pollution indices in the marine environment of west coast of India. Paleontology and Stratigraphy, 89: 421-436.

Sharifi, A. R., I. W. Crouda, I. W. Crouda, and R. L. Austin (1991). Benthonic foraminiferids as pollution indicators in Southampton water, Southern England, UK. Journal of Micropaleontology, 10: 109-113.

Sharifi, A. R. (1991). Heavy metal pollution and its effects on recent foraminiferids from Southampton water, Southern England, UK, Ph.D. thesis from the University of Southampton, p. 323.

Sloan, D. (1995). Use of foraminiferal biostratigraphy in mitigating pollution and seismic problems, San Francisco, Californiaq. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(3): 260-266.
From abstract: The distribution of an easily recognized assemblage of foraminifera in upper Pleistocene estuarine deposits beneath San Francisco Bay is a useful correlation tool for engineers and geologists to address two environmental problems: groundwater pollution in the south Bay and failure of the Cypress Freeway Structure and Bay Bridge in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. As a result of these and related problems, interest in the stratigraphy of San Francisco Bay has increased significantly in the past few years. The stratigraphy is complicated by highly varied and discontinuous sediments beneath the Bay. Glacially controlled fluctuations of sea level resulted in deposition of alternating alluvial and estuarine sediments which inter-finger complexly at the margins of the Bay. The coarse-grained alluvial deposits are widely used as aquifers for municipal and agricultural water supplies around the Bay, Pollution seriously threatens this supply in several areas. Difficulty in correlating the alluvial deposits hinders pollution remediation efforts and engineering geologic site characterizations for seismic hazard remediation. The estuarine deposits, which are thick, laterally continuous, and widespread, provide a valuable time and marker horizon. The deposits of the last interglacial estuary, the Yerba Buena mud, are especially useful because sea level was approximately 6 m higher than at present, and low-lying margins of the present Bay were hooded. In the South Bay, the Yerba Buena mud extends 8 km or more inland from the Bay. Distinctive foraminifera and other microfossils in the Yerba Buena mud permit correlation of the discontinuous alluvial units beneath the Bay and its margins. Thus, foraminifera contribute to the understanding of the complex stratigraphy beneath the Bay needed for preventing and remediating environmental problems in this highly populated urbanized estuary.

Stott, L. D., T. P. Hayden, J. Griffith (1996). Benthic foraminifera at the Los Angeles county Whites Point outfall revisited. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 26(4): 357-368.
From abstract: A benthic foraminiferal census was conducted at sites located on the shelf surrounding the Los Angeles County sewage outfall at Whites Point, California. The study was conducted in order to determine whether improved sewage treatment over the past 30 years has resulted in a return of species previously excluded in the vicinity of the outfall. This study follows-up that of Bandy and others after 30 years to investigate whether more stringent control of effluent has resulted in a revitalization of the foraminiferal populations around the outfall. At the time of the Bandy and others study, benthic foraminiferal populations were severely affected around the outfall, with unusually low abundances of most species as far away as several kilometers. The zone adjacent to the discharge diffusers was characterized as a ''Dead Zone'' with no living foraminifera. Thirty years later, following significant decline in the volume of contaminants, including DDT and solid waste, the environment around the outfall is now re-inhabited by benthic foraminifera in numbers similar to those found in other non-affected parts of the Southern California shelf. Despite this dramatic improvement, there remains a zone directly around the diffusers that is not inhabited by all species. In particular, Nonionella stella and Nonionella basispinata are excluded from this zone. These foraminifera appear to be the most sensitive to sewage discharge and the environmental conditions that prevail around the outfall. The sensitivity of Nonionella spp, should provide good indication of conditions around other environmentally sensitive regions along the California coast.

Thomas, E., T. Gapotchenko, J. C. Varekamp, E. L. Mecray, and M. R. B. ten Brink (2000). Benthic foraminifera and environmental changes in Long Island Sound Journal of Coastal Research, 16(3): 641-655.
From abstract: Benthic foraminiferal faunas in Long Island Sound (LIS) in the 1940s and 1960s were of low diversity, and dominated by species of the genus Elphidium, mainly Elphidium excavatum clavatum, with common Buccella frigida and Eggerella advena. The distribution of these species was dominantly correlated with depth, but it was not clear which depth-related environmental variable was most important. Differences between faunas collected in 1996 and 1997, and in the 1940s and 1960s include a strong decrease in relative abundance of Eggerella advena over all LIS, an increase in relative abundance of Ammonia beccarii in western LIS, and a decrease in species diversity. The decreased diversity suggests that environmental stress caused the faunal changes. Oxygen isotope data for E. excavatum clavatum indicate that a change in salinity is not a probable cause. Carbon isotope data suggest that the supply of organic matter to the benthos increased since the early 1960s, with a stronger increase in western LIS where algal blooms have occurred since the early 1970s, possibly as a result of nutrient input by waste water treatment plants. These blooms or the resulting episodes of anoxia/hypoxia may have played a role in the increased relative abundance of A. beccarii. There is no clear explanation for the decreased abundance of E. advena, but changes in the phytoplankton composition (thus food supply) are a possible cause. Benthic foraminiferal faunal and stable isotope data have excellent potential as indicators of physicochemical environmental changes and their effects on the biota in LIS.

Van der Zwaan, G. J., I. A. Duijnstee, M. Den Dulk, S. R. Ernst, N. T. Jannink, and T. J. Kouwenhoven (1999). Benthic foraminifers: proxies or problems? Earth Science Reviews, 46: 213-136.

Van der Zwaan, G. J. (2000). Variation in natural vs. anthropogenic eutrophication in shelf areas in front of major rivers. In R. Martin ed. Environmental Micropaleontology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 385-404.

Venec-Peyre, M. T. (1981). Les foraminiferes et la pollution: etude de la microfaune de la Cale du Douduff (embrouchure de la riviere de Morlaix). Cah. Biol. Mar., 22: 25-33.

Vilks, G., C. T. Schafer, and D. A. Walker (1975). Influence of a causeway on oceanography and foraminifera in the Srait of Canso, Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 12: 2086-2102.

Watkins, J. G. (1961). Foraminiferal ecology around the Orange county, California, ocean sewer outfall. Micropaleontology, 7: 1999-206.

Yanko, V., A. Flexer, N. Kress, H. Hornung, and J. Kronfeld (1992). Benthic foraminifera as indicators of heavy metal pollution along Israel's eastern Mediterranean margin. French-Israeli Symposium on the continental margin of the Mediterranean Sea, Institute Oceanography and Limnology, Haifa, Israel, 73-79.

Yanko, V., J. Kronfeld, and A. Flexer (1994). Response of benthic foraminifera to various pollution sources: implications for pollution monitoring. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 24(1): 1-17.
From abstract: A detailed study of foraminiferal populations was carried out at three contaminated sites along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. The unpolluted coast of Nitzanim provided the first natural base line to be determined for the region. At Palmahim (domestic sewage) the species diversity and population density was greatest. In contrast, the lowest species diversity and population density occurred near the Hadera power station, where coal was the major source of pollution in the sediment. Part of Haifa Bay is currently being contaminated by a variety of heavy metals. In the contaminated site the foraminiferal tests were smaller, often stunted and frequently pyritized. Benthic foraminifera have been demonstrated to be sensitive in situ monitors or coastal pollution.

Yanko, V., M. Ahmad, et al. (1998). Morphological deformities of benthic foraminiferal tests in response to pollution by heavy metals: Implications for pollution monitoring. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 28(3): 177-200.
From abstract: Live foraminiferal assemblages were studied along the Mediterranean coast of northern Israel. Two hundred seventeen benthic foraminiferal species were identified, 30% of which exhibited 11 distinct types of morphological deformities of their tests. These include: wrong coiling, aberrant chamber shape and size, poor development of the last whorl, twisted chamber arrangement, additional chambers, protuberances, multiple apertures, irregular keel, twinning, lateral asymmetry, and lack of sculpture. In small numbers, they can occur within the range of natural variability of a given species in given environmental conditions. However, several species display an increase in the proportion of deformed foraminifera in live assemblages that can be caused by low salinity (e,g,, for Adelosina cliarensis) or by an increase in concentrations of heavy metals within the sediment.

Yanko, V., A. J. Arnold, and W. C. Parker (1999). Effects of marine pollution on benthic foraminifera. In B. K. Sen Gupta ed. Modern Foraminifera. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 217-235.

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